A machining process removes excess material to shape, size, and process a product into the desired final form.
Unlike other manufacturing methods, machining can remove high amounts of material from hard materials without damaging them. It can also produce a higher production rate and reduce labor costs.
Turning, also known as rotary machining, is one of the three basic types of machining processes. It involves the use of a single-point cutting tool to remove material from a rotating workpiece. It is commonly performed on metal, but can be used to cut other materials such as wood, plastic, and stone.
This type of machining process uses a lathe to rotate the workpiece while the cutting tool is angled to remove material along its diameter. The lathe can be a manual lathe or an automated machine with computer numerical control (CNC).
A turning tool is typically made from high-speed steel, but carbide has become more popular due to its wear resistance and durability. Carbide tools are generally brazed, which means they are hardened by heating them to a higher temperature than other cutting tools.
When performing turning, a lathe is usually attached to a fixed tool (such as a boring bar) that enables the machinist to create a variety of different geometric forms in the workpiece. This process is commonly used to create tubular components.
The diameter and depth of these parts is often extremely precise, depending on the machining technique being used and the accuracy of the lathe. These precisions are aided by the fact that the lathe can be traversed along 1, 2, or 3 axes of motion to produce a wide range of diameters and depths.
In addition to machining cylindrical parts, turning can be used to create shapes in the form of steps, tapers, and chamfers. These features can be created through multiple passes at a small radial depth of cut and involve several topological processes.
As with other machining processes, it can be costly to machine a part, especially if it is done on a lathe. This is because it can be expensive to run a lathe, and it requires a lot of maintenance. The repetitive nature of the machining process can cause the cutting tool to wear out quickly, which can result in higher repair costs. In addition, turning can create a significant amount of scrap metal.
Drilling is a type of machining that uses rotating cutting tools to drill or bore into a workpiece to create a round hole. This process is used to manufacture nuts and bolts, vehicle parts, flanges, and a variety of other items.
The equipment used for drilling varies depending on the material being worked with. For example, a drill press is used for metals, while a milling machine is employed for non-metal materials. In either case, a table holds the workpiece and moves it around to reach different tools oriented at different angles.
These tools can be made of many different materials, and can have varying degrees of flutes and teeth. This allows machinists to rough out a surface, which involves removing excess material, or to fine-tune the final product with more complex cuts.
In addition, machining can be used to shape various types of non-metal materials, such as plastic and rubber. Molding is a common way of manufacturing these materials, but often other features need to be added to the end product, and machining can provide this additional functionality.
The machining of wood, plastic, ceramic, and stone also requires a helix-shaped tool, although this is typically more difficult than machining of metals. In these cases, machining can be used to add holes, remove burrs, or even finish shaping the raw material to create an exact match for a special design.
This machining procedure also includes directional drilling, which is the intentional deviation of a well bore from its natural path through the ground. During this operation, downhole instruments continuously measure the path of the well bore in three dimensions and then transmit these measurements to a data link to allow constant adjustment to the mud motors and bottomhole assembly configurations.
Milling is a type of machining process in which the workpiece is fixed and a rotating cutting tool presses against it, removing material. The tool is typically a milling cutter that has multiple cutting edges. This method of machining is most often used for forming surfaces such as planes, grooves, and various shaped parts.
Machines suited for this process include those with moveable tables and a spindle that rotates the milling cutter. This enables the milling cutter to contact and cut the workpiece intermittently, which allows it to perform many different machining operations.
The tool that is used for milling is typically a multi-edged, circular cutter with a sharp edge. This means that it can perform all types of machining operations, including drilling and grooving.
This type of machining process is generally considered the most versatile, as it can be used to make nearly all types of shapes. It can be used to machine flat surfaces, contoured surfaces, and curved surfaces, as well as to cut slots and gears.
There are two main types of milling operation: face and peripheral. During face milling, the blades of the milling cutter take swarfs of material at regular intervals, resulting in a rougher surface finish than other methods. The swarfs are also sometimes called “revolution ridges.”
Peripheral milling involves cutting along the diameter of the cutter, which means that the blades of the cutter take swarfs at varying distances from each other. This results in a more uniform surface finish than face milling, as swarfs are less likely to interfere with the cutter’s cutting edges.
Some other types of milling include rotary and vertical. These machines have a rotating spindle that can be raised and lowered, allowing plunge cuts and drilling.
Another common type of milling is turret-type. These machines have a rotating spindle and several clamps that allow the workpiece to be mounted on the milling spindle at different angles.
These milling machines are ideal for machining large, heavy components. However, they can be expensive and are usually not suitable for machining small, lightweight components.